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【资料】许癸努斯《天文学》

12星座的拉丁语版与英语版
拉:
XX. ARIES. Hic existimatur esse, qui Phrixum et Hellen transtulisse dictus est per Hellespontum. Quem Hesiodus et Pherecydes ait habuisse auream pellem; de qua alibi plura dicemus. Sed Hellen decidisse in Hellespontum, et a Neptuno conpressam Paeona procreasse conplures, nonnulli Edonum dixerunt. Praeterea Phrixum incolumem ad Aeetam pervenisse, arietem Iovi inmolasse, pellem in templo fixisse et arietis ipsius effigiem ab Nube inter sidera constitutam, habere tempus anni, quo frumentum seritur; quod id Ino tostum severit ante, quae maxime fugae fuit causa. Eratosthenes ait arietem ipsum sibi pellem auream detraxisse et Phrixo memoriae causa dedisse, ipsum ad sidera peruenisse, quare, ut supra diximus, obscurius videatur. Hunc autem nonnulli dixerunt in oppido Orchomeno, quod est in Boeotia, natum; alii in Salonum Thessaliae finibus procreatum. Alii dicunt Crethea et Athamantem cum aliis conpluribus Aeoli filios fuisse; nonnulli etiam Athamantis filium Salmonea esse Aeoli nepotem dixerunt. Crethea autem habuisse Demodicen uxorem, quam alii Biadicen dixerunt. Hanc autem Phrixi Athamantis filii corpore inductam in amorem incidisse, neque ab eo, ut sibi copiam faceret, inpetrare potuisse. Itaque necessario coactam, criminari eum ad Crethea coepisse, quod diceret ab eo vim sibi pene allatam, et horum similia mulierum consuetudine dixisse. Quo facto Crethea ut uxoris adamantem et regem decebat, permotum, Athamanti ut de eo supplicium sumeret persuasisse. Nubem autem interuenisse, et ereptum Phrixum et Hellen eius sororem in ariete inposuisse et per Hellespontum quam longissime possent profugere iussisse. Hellen decidisse et ibi debitum naturae reddidisse, et ex eius nomine Hellespontum appellatum. Phrixum Colchos peruenisse et, ut ante diximus, arietis interfecti pellem in templo fixisse. Ipsum autem a Mercurio. Ad Athamantem esse reductum, qui patri satisfecerit, eum innocentia confisum profugisse. Hermippus autem dicit, quo tempore Liber Africam oppugnaverit, devenisse cum exercitu in eum locum, qui propter multitudinem pulueris Ammodes est appellatus. Itaque cum in maximum periculum devenisset, quod iter necessario faciendum esse videbat, accessit eo, ut aquae maxima penuria esset; quo facto exercitus ad defectionem maximam venire cogebatur. Qui dum quid agerent cogitant, aries quidam fortuitu ad milites seorsum errans peruenit; quos cum vidisset, fuga praesidium sibi paravit. Milites autem, qui eum fuerant conspicati, etsi puluere et aestu pressi vix progrediebantur, tamen ut praedam ex flamma petentes, arietem sequi coeperunt usque ad eum locum, qui Iovis Hammonis postea templo constituto est appellatus. Quo cum peruenissent, arietem quem secuti fuerant, nusquam inuenire potuerunt; sed quod magis his fuerat optandum, aquae magnam copiam in eo loco nacti sunt, recuperatisque corporibus Libero statim nuntiaverunt. qui gavisus ad eos fines exercitum deduxit et Iovis Hammonis templum cum arietinis cornibus simulacro facto constituit. Arietem inter sidera figuravit, ita ut cum sol in eius foret signo, omnia nascentia recrearentur, quae veris tempore fiunt, hac re maxime, quod illius fuga Liberi recreavit exercitum. Praeterea XII signorum principem voluit esse, quod illius optimus exercitui fuerat ductor. Sed de Hammonis simulacro Leon, qui res Aegyptias conscripsit, ait: Cum Liber Aegyptum et reliquos fines regno teneret et omnia primus hominibus ostendisse diceretur, Hammonem quendam ex Africa venisse et pecoris multitudinem ad Liberum adduxisse, quo facilius et eius gratia uteretur et aliquid primus inuenisse diceretur. Itaque pro beneficio ei Liber existimatur agrum dedisse, qui est contra Thebas Aegyptias; et qui simulacra faciunt Hammonis, capite cornuto instituunt, ut homines memoria teneant eum primum pecus ostendisse. Qui autem Libero factum voluerunt adsignare, quod non petierit ab Hammone, sed ultro ad eum sit adductum, simulacra illi cornuta faciunt et arietem memoriae causa inter sidera fixum dicunt.

XXI. TAURUS. Hic dicitur inter astra esse constitutus, quod Europam incolumem transuexerit Cretam, ut Euripides dicit. Nonnulli aiunt, cum Io in bovem sit conuersa, ut Iuppiter ei satisfacere videretur, inter sidera constituisse, quod eius prior pars appareat ut tauri, sed reliquum corpus obscurius videatur. Spectat autem ad exortum solis; cuius oris effigiem quae continent stellae, Hyades appellantur. Has autem Pherecydes Atheniensis Liberi nutrices esse demonstrat, numero septem, quas etiam antea nymphas Dodonidas appellatas. Harum nomina sunt haec: Ambrosia, Eudora, Pedile, Coronis, Polyxo, Phyto, Thyone. Hae dicuntur a Lycurgo fugatae et praeter Ambrosiam omnes ad Thetim profugatae, ut ait Asclepiades. Sed ut Pherecydes dicit, ad Thebas Liberum perlatum Inoni tradiderunt. Quam ob causam ab Iove his gratia est relata, quod inter sidera sunt constitutae. Pliades autem appellatae sunt, ut ait Musaeus, quod ex Atlante et Aethra Oceani filia sint filiae XV procreatae, quarum V Hyades appellatas demonstrat, quod earum Hyas fuerit frater, a sororibus plurimum dilectus. Qui cum venans a leone esset interfectus, quinque, de quibus supra diximus, lamentationibus assiduis permotae, dicuntur interisse; quare eas, quod plurimum de eius morte laborarent, Hyadas appellatas. Reliquas autem decem sorores deliberasse de sororum morte et earum septem mortem sibi conscisse; quare quod plures idem senserint, Pliadas dictas. Alexander autem Hyadas ait dictas, quod Hyantis et Boetiae sint filiae; Pliadas autem, quod ex Plione Oceani et Atlante sint natae. Hae numero septem dicuntur, sed nemo amplius VI potest videre; cuius causa proditur haec, quod de septem sex cum immortalibus concubuerint, tres cum Iove, duae cum Neptuno, una cum Marte, reliquia autem Sisyphi fuisse uxor demonstratur. Quarum ex Electra et Iove Dardanum, ex Maia Mercurium, ex Taygete Lacedaemona procreatum; ex Alyone autem et Neptuno Hyriea, ex Celaeno Lycum et Nyctea natum. Martem autem ex Sterope Oenomaum procreasse, quam alii Oenomai uxorem dixerunt. Meropen autem Sisypho nuptam Glaucum genuisse, quem complures Bellerophontis patrem esse dixerunt. Quare propter reliquas eius sorores inter sidera constitutam; sed quod homini nupserit, stellam eius obscuratam. Alii dicunt Electram non apparere ideo, quod Pliades existimentur choream ducere stellis; sed postquam Troia sit capta, et progenies eius quae a Dardano fuerit, sit eversa, dolore permotam ab his se removisse, et in circulo qui arcticus dicitur, constitisse, ex quo tam longo tempore lamentantem capillo passo videri; itaque e facto Cometen esse appellatam. Sed has Pliadas antiqui astrologi seorsum a Tauro deformaverunt, ut ante diximus, Pliones et Atlantis filias. Quae cum per Boetiam cum puellis iter faceret, Oriona comitatum voluisse ei vim afferre; illam fugere coepisse, Oriona autem secutum esse annos VII neque invenire potuisse. Iovem autem puellarum misertum, iter ad astra constituisse, et postea a nonnullis astrologis caudam Tauri appellatas. Itaque adhuc Orion fugientes eas ad occasum sequi videtur. Eas stellas nostri Vergilias appellaverunt, quod post ver exoriuntur, et hae quidem ampliorem ceteris habent honorem, quod earum signo exoriente aestas significatur, occidente autem hiems ostenditur, quod aliis non est traditum signis.

XXII. GEMINI. Hos conplures astrologi Castorem et Pollucem esse dixerunt; quos demonstrant omnium fratrum inter se amantissimos fuisse, quod neque de principatu contenderint, neque ullam rem sine communi consilio gesserint. Pro quibus officiis eorum Iuppiter notissima sidera eos constituisse existimatur. Neptunum autem pari consilio munerasse; nam equos quibus utuntur donavit et dedit potestatem naufragis saluti esse. Alii dixerunt Herculem esse et Apollinem; nonnulli etiam Triptolemum, quem supra diximus, et Iasiona a Cerere dilectos et ad sidera perlatos. Sed qui de Castore et Polluce dicunt, hoc amplius addunt, ut Castor in oppido Aphidnis sit occisus, quo tempore Lacedaemones cum Atheniensibus bellum gesserunt. Alii autem, cum oppugnarent Spartam Lynceus et Idas, ibi perisse dixerunt. Pollucem ait Homerus concessisse fratri dimidiam vitam; itaque alternis diebus eorum quemque lucere.

XXIII. CANCER dicitur Iunonis beneficio inter astra collocatus, quod, cum Hercules contra hydram Lernaeam constitisset, ex palude pedem eius mordicus arripuisset; quare Herculem permotum, eum interfecisse. Iunonem autem inter sidera constituisse, ut esset cum duodecim signis, quae maxime solis cursu continentur.

In eius deformationis parte sunt quidam qui Asini appellantur, a Libero in testa Cancri duabus stellis omnino figurati. Liber enim ab Iunone furore obiecto, dicitur mente captus fugisse per Thesprotiam, cogitans ab Iovis Dodonaei oraculum pervenire, unde peteret responsum, quo facilius ad pristinum statum mentis perveniret. Sed cum venisset ad quandam paludem magnam, quam transire non posset, quibusdam asellis duobus obviam factis dicitur unum eorum deprehendisse et ita esse transvectus, ut omnino aquam non tetigerit. Itaque cum venisset ad templum Iovis Dodonaei, statim dicitur furore liberatus asellis gratiam retulisse et inter sidera eos collocasse. Nonnulli etiam dixerunt asino illi, quo fuerit vectus, vocem humanam dedisse. Itaque eum postea cum Priapo contendisse de natura et victum ab eo interfectum. Pro quo Liberum eius misertum in sideribus adnumerasse; et ut sciretur id pro deo, non homine timido, quia Iunonem fugerit, fecisse, supra Cancrum constituit, qui eius beneficio fuerat adfixus astris.

Dicitur etiam alia historia de Asellis. Ut ait Eratosthenes, quo tempore Iuppiter, bello gigantibus indicto, ad eos oppugnandos omnes deos convocasset, venisse Liberum patrem, Vulcanum, Satyros, Silenos asellis vectos. Qui cum non longe ab hostibus abessent, dicuntur aselli pertimuisse, et ita pro se quisque magnum clamorem et inauditum gigantibus fecisse, ut omnes hostes eorum clamore in fugam se coniecerint et ita sint superati. Huic similis est historia de bucino Tritonis. Nam is quoque fertur, cum concham inventam excavasset, secum ad gigantas tulisse et ibi sonum quendam inauditum per concham misisse. Hostes autem veritos ne qua esset inmanis fera ab adversariis adducta, cuius esset ille mugitus, fugae se mandasse, et ita victos in hostium potestatem pervenisse.

XXIV. LEO. Hic dicitur ab Iove inter astra constitutus, quod omnium ferarum princeps esse existimatur. Nonnulli etiam hoc amplius dicunt, quod Herculis prima fuerit haec certatio, et quod eum inermis interfecerit. De hoc et Pisandrus et complures alii scripserunt. Cuius supra simulacrum proxime Virginem sunt aliae VII stellae ad caudam Leonis in triangulo collocatae, quas crines Berenices esse Conon Samius mathematicus et Callimachus dicit. Cum Ptolomaeus Berenicen Ptolomaei et Arsinoes filiam sororem suam duxisset uxorem, et paucis post diebus Asiam oppugnatum profectus esset, vovisse Berenicen, si victor Ptolomaeus redisset, se crinem detonsuram; quo voto damnatam crinem in Veneris Arsinoes Zephyritidis posuisse templo, eumque postero die non comparuisse. Quod factum cum rex aegre ferret, Conon mathematicus ut ante diximus cupiens inire gratiam regis, dixit crinem inter sidera videri collocatum et quasdam vacuas a figura septem stellas ostendit, quas esse fingeret crinem. Hanc Berenicen nonnulli cum Callimacho dixerunt equos alere et ad Olympia mittere consuetam fuisse. Alii dicunt hoc amplius Ptolomaeum Berenices patrem, multitudine hostium perterritum, fuga salutem petisse; filiam autem saepe consuetam, insiluisse in equum, et reliquam exercitus copiam constituisse, et conplures hostium interfecisse, reliquos in fugam coniecisse; pro quo etiam Callimachus eam magnanimam dixit. Eratosthenes autem dicit et virginibus Lesbiis dotem quam cuique relictam a parente nemo solverit, iussisse reddi, et inter eas constituisse petitionem.

XXV. VIRGO. Hanc Hesiodus Iovis et Themidis filiam dicit; Aratus autem Astraei et Aurorae filiam existimari, quae eodem tempore fuerit cum aurea saecula hominum, et eorum principem fuisse demonstrat. Quam propter diligentiam et aequitatem Iustitiam appellatam; neque illo tempore ab hominibus exteras nationes bello lacessitas esse, neque navigio quemquam usum, sed agris colendis vitam agere consuesse. Sed post eorum obitum qui sint nati, eos minus officiosos, magis avaros coepisse fieri, quare minus Iustitiam inter homines fuisse conversatam. Denique causam pervenisse usque eo, dum diceretur aeneum genus hominum natum. Itaque iam non potuisse pati amplius et ad sidera evolasse. Sed hanc alii Fortunam, alii Cererem dixerunt, et hoc magis non convenit inter eos, quod caput eius nimium obscurum videtur. Nonnulli eam Erigonen Icari filiam dixerunt, de qua supra diximus. Alii autem Apollinis filiam ex Chrysothemi natam, et infantem Parthenon nomine appellatam; eamque, quod parva interierit, ab Apolline inter sidera collocatam.

XXVI. SCORPIUS. Hic propter magnitudinem membrorum in duo signa dividitur, quorum unius effigiem nostri Libram dixerunt. Sed omnino totum signum hac de causa statutum existimatur: quod Orion cum venaretur, et in eo exercitatissimum se esse confideret, dixisse etiam Dianae et Latonae se omnia, quae ex terra oriantur, interficere valere. Quare Terram permotam, Scorpionem misisse, qui eum interficere monstratur. Iovem autem utriusque animum admiratum, Scorpionem inter astra conlocasse, ut species eius hominibus documento esset, ne quis eorum aliqua re sibi confideret. Dianam autem propter studium Orionis petisse ab Iove, ut idem illi beneficium daret petenti, quod Terrae ultro tribuisset. Itaque eum ita constitutum, ut, cum Scorpius exoriatur, occidat Orion.

XXVII. SAGITTARIUS. Hunc complures Centaurum esse dixerunt; alii autem hac de causa negaverunt, quod nemo Centaurus sagittis sit usus. Hic autem quaeritur, cur equinis cruribus sit deformatus et caudam habeat ut Satyri. Dicunt enim nonnulli hunc esse Crotum nomine, Euphemes Musarum nutricis filium. Ut ait Sositheus tragoediarum scriptor, eum domicilium in monte Helicone habuisse et cum Musis solitum delectari, nonnumquam etiam studio venationis exerceri. Itaque pro merita diligentia magnam laudem assecutum; nam et celerrimum in silvis et acutissimum in musis factum esse. Pro quo studio illius petisse Musas ab Iove, ut in aliquo astrorum numero eum deformaret. Itaque Iovem fecisse; et cum omnia illius artificia uno corpore vellet significare, crura eius equina fecisse, quod equo multum sit usus; et sagittas adiunxisse, ut ex his et acumen et celeritas eius videretur. Caudam satyricam in corpore fixisse, quod iam non minus hoc Croto Musae, quam Liber Satyris sit delectatus. Ante huius pedes stellae sunt paucae et in rotundo deformatae, quas coronam eius ut ludentis abiectam nonnulli dixerunt.

XXVIII. CAPRICORNUS. Huius effigies similis est Aegipani. Quem Iuppiter, quod cum eo erat nutritus, in sideribus esse voluit, ut capram nutricem, de qua ante diximus. Hic etiam dicitur, cum Iuppiter Titanas obpugnaret, primus obiecisse hostibus timorem, qui panikos appellatur, ut ait Eratosthenes. Hac etiam de causa eius inferiorem partem piscis esse formationem, et quod muricibus hostes sit iaculatus pro lapidum iactatione. Aegyptii autem sacerdotes et nonnulli poetae dicunt, cum complures dii in Aegyptum convenissent, repente pervenisse eodem Typhona, acerrimum giganta et maxime deorum hostem. Quo timore permotos in alias figuras se convertisse; Mercurium factum esse ibim, Apollinem autem, quae Threicia avis vocatur, Dianam aeluro similatam. Quibus de causis Aegyptios ea genera violari non sinere demonstrant, quod deorum imagines dicantur. Eodem tempore Pana dicunt in flumen se deiecisse et posteriorem partem corporis effigiem piscis, alteram autem hirci fecisse et ita a Typhone profugisse. Cuius cogitatum Iovem admiratum, inter sidera effigiem eius fixisse.

XXIX. AQUARIUS. Hunc conplures Ganymedem esse dixerunt, quem Iuppiter propter pulchritudinem corporis ereptum parentibus, deorum ministrum fecisse existimatur. Itaque ostenditur ut aquam aquali infundens. Hegesianax autem Deucaliona dicit esse, quod eo regnante tanta vis aquae se a caelo profuderit, ut cataclysmus factus esse diceretur. Eubulus autem Cecropem demonstrat esse, antiquitatem generis commemorans et ostendens, antequam vinum traditum sit hominibus, aqua in sacrificiis deorum usos esse, et ante Cecropem regnasse quam vinum sit inventum.

XXX. PISCES. Diognetus Erythraeus ait quodam tempore Venerem cum Cupidine filio in Syriam ad flumen Euphraten venisse. Eodem loco repente Typhona, de quo supra diximus, apparuisse; Venerem autem cum filio in flumen se proiecisse et ibi figuram piscium forma mutasse; quo facto, periculo esse liberatos. Itaque postea Syros, qui in his locis sunt proximi, destitisse pisces edere, quod vereantur eos capere, ne simili causa aut deorum praesidia impugnare videantur, aut eos ipsos captare. Eratosthenes autem ex eo pisce natos hos dicit, de quo posterius dicemus.

英:
§ 2.20.1  RAM: This is thought to be the ram which carried Phrixus and Helle thought the Hellespont. Hesiod and Pherecydes say that it had a fleece of gold; about his we shall speak at greater length elsewhere. Many have said that Helle fell into the Hellespont, was embraced by Neptune, and bore Paeon, or, as some say, Edonus. They say, too, that Phrixus, on coming safely to Aeetes, sacrificed the ram to Jove, and hung the fleece up in the temple. The image of the ram itself, put among the constellations by Nubes, marks the time of year when grain is sown, because Ino earlier sowed it parched — the chief reason for the flight. Eratosthenes says that the ram itself removed its golden fleece, and gave it Phrixus as a memorial, and then came of its own accord to the stars; for this reason it seems somewhat dim, as we said before.


§ 2.20.2  Phrixus was born, some say, in the town of Orchomenus, which is in Boeotia; others say, in the district of the Salones of Thessaly. Still others make Cretheus and Athamas with many others, sons of Aeolus; some, again, say that Salmoneus, son of Athamas, was a grandson of Aeolus. Cretheus had Demodice as wife; others name her Biadice. Moved by the beauty of Phrixus, son of Athamas, she fell in love with him, and could not obtain from him favour in return; so, driven by necessity, she accused him to Cretheus, saying that he had attacked her, and many similar things that women say. Stirred by this report, Cretheus, as was fitting for one who deeply loved his wife and was a king, persuaded Athamas to put Phrixus to death. However, Nubes intervened, and rescuing Phrixus and Helle his sister, put them on the ram, and bade them flee as far as they could through the Hellespont Helle fell off and paid the debt to nature, and the Hellespont was named from her name. Phrixus came to the Colchians, and, as we have said, hung up the fleece of the slain ram in a temple. He himself was brought back to Athamas by Mercury, who proved to his father that, relying on innocence, he had fled.


Event Date: -1000 LA


§ 2.20.3  Hermippus says that at the time when Liber was attacking Africa he came with his army to the place called Ammodes from the great quantities of sand. He was in great danger, since he saw he had to advance, and an added difficulty was the great scarcity of water. The army were almost at the point of exhaustion, and the men were wondering what to do, when a certain ram, wandering apart, came by chance near the soldiers. When it saw them it took safety in flight. The soldiers, however, who had seen it, though they were advancing with difficulty oppressed by the sand and heat, gave chase, as if seeking booty from the flames, and followed it to that place which was named from the temple of Jove Hammon later founded there. When they had come there, the ram which they had followed was nowhere to be seen, but what was more to be desired, they found an abundant supply of water, and, refreshed in body, reported it at once to Liber. In joy he led his army to that place, and founded a temple to Jove Hammon, fashioning a statue there with the horns of a ram. He put the ram among the constellations in such a way that when the sun should be in that sign, all growing things would be refreshed; this happens in the spring for the reason that the ram's flight refreshed the army of Liber. He wished it, too, to be chief of the twelve signs, because the ram had been the best leader of his army.


Event Date: -1000 LA


§ 2.20.4  But Leon, who wrote about Egyptian affairs, speaks of the statue of Hammon as follows. When Liber was ruling over Egypt and the other lands, and was said to have introduced all arts to mankind, a certain Hammon came from Africa and brought to him a great flock of sheep, in order more readily to enjoy his favour and be called the first inventor of something. And so, for his kindness, Liber is thought to have given him the land opposite Egyptian Thebes. Accordingly, those who make statues of Hammon, make them with horned heads, so that men may remember that he first showed the use of flocks. Those, however, who have wished to assign the gift to Liber, as not asked for from Hammon, but brought to him voluntarily, make those horned images for Liber, and say that in commemoration the ram was placed among the constellations.


Event Date: -1000 LA


§ 2.21.1  BULL: The Bull was placed among the stars because it carried Europa safely to Crete, as Euripides says. Some say that when Io was transformed into a heifer, Jupiter, to seem to make amends, put an image among the constellations which resembled a bull in its fore parts, but was dim behind. It faces towards the East, and the stars which outline the face are called Hyades. These, Pherecydes the Athenian says, are the nurses of Liber, seven in number, who earlier were nymphae called Dodonidae. Their names are as follows: Ambrosia, Eudora, Pedile, Coronis, Polyxo, Phyto, and Thyone. They are said to have been put to flight by Lycurgus and all except Ambrosia took refuge with Thetis, as Asclepiades says. But according to Pherecydes, they brought Liber to Thebes and delivered him to Ino, and for this reason Jove expressed his thanks to them by putting them among the constellations.


Event Date: -1000 LA


§ 2.21.4  The Pleiades were so named, according to Musaeaus, because fifteen daughters were born to Atlas and Aethra, daughter of Ocean. Five of them are called Hyades, he shows, because their brother was Hyas, a youth dearly beloved by his sisters. When he was killed in a lion hunt, the five we have mentioned, given over to continual lamentation, are said to have perished. Because they grieved exceedingly at his death, they are called Hyades. The remaining ten brooded over the death of their sisters, and brought death on themselves; because so may experienced the same grief, they were called Pleiades. Alexander says they were called Hyades because they were daughters of Hyas and Boeotia, Pleiades, because born of Pleio, daughter of Ocean, and Atlas.


Event Date: -1000 LA


§ 2.21.5  The Pleiades are called seven in number, but only six can be seen. This reason has been advanced, that of the seven, six mated with immortals (three with Jove, two with Neptune, and one with Mars); the seventh was said to have been the wife of Sisyphus. From Electra and Jove, Dardanus was born; from Maia and Jove, Mercury; from Taygete and Jove, Lacedaemon; from Alcyone and Neptune, Hyrieus; from Celaeno and Neptune, Lycus and Nycteus. Mars by Sterope begat Oinomaus, but others call her the wife of Oinomaus. Merope, wed to Sisyphus, bore Glaucus, who, as many say, was the father of Bellerophon. On account of her other sisters she was placed among the constellations, but because she married a mortal, her star is dim. Others say Electra does not appear because the Pleiades are thought to lead the circling dance for the stars, but after Troy was captured and her descendants through Dardanus overthrown, moved by grief she left them and took her place in the circle called Arctic. From this she appears, in grief for such a long time, with her hair unbound, that, because of this, she is called a comet.


Event Date: -1000 LA


§ 2.21.6  But ancient astronomers placed these Pleiades, daughters of Pleione and Atlas, as we have said, apart from the Bull. When Pleione once was travelling through Boeotia with her daughters, Orion, who was accompanying her, tried to attack her. She escaped, but Orion sought her for seven years and couldn't find her. Jove, pitying the girls, appointed a way to the stars, and later, by some astronomers, they were called the Bull's tail. And so up to this time Orion seems to be following them as they flee towards the west. Our writers call these stars Vergiliae, because they rise after spring. They have still greater honour than the others, too, because their rising is a sign of summer, their setting of winter — a thing is not true of the other constellations.


Event Date: -1000 LA


§ 2.22.1  TWINS: These stars many astronomers have called Castor and Pollux. They say that of all brothers they were the most affectionate, not striving in rivalry for the leadership, nor acting without previous consultation. As a reward for their services of friendship, Jupiter is thought to have put them in the sky as well-known stars. Neptune, with like intention, has rewarded them for he gave them horses to ride, and power to aid shipwrecked men.
§ 2.22.2  Others have called them Hercules and Apollo; some, even Triptolemus, whom we mentioned before, and Iasion, beloved of Ceres — both carried to the stars.


Event Date: -1000 LA


§ 2.22.3  Those who speak of Castor and Pollux add this information, that Castor was slain in the town of Aphidnae, at the time when the Lacedemonians were fighting the Athenians. Others say that when Lynceus and Idas were attacking Sparta, he perished there. Homer states that Pollux granted to his brother one half of his life, so that they shine on alternate days.


Event Date: -1000 LA


§ 2.23.1  CRAB: The Crab is said to have been put among the stars by the favour of Juno, because, when Hercules had stood firm against the Lernaean Hydra, it had snapped at his foot from the swamp. Hercules, enraged at this, had killed it, and Juno put it among the constellations to be one of the twelve signs which are bound together by the circuit of the sun.


Event Date: -1000 LA


§ 2.23.2  In one part of its figure there are certain stars called Asses, pictured on the shell of the Crab by Liber with two stars only. For Liber, when madness was sent upon him by Juno, is said to have fled wildly through Thesprotia intending to reach the oracle of Dodonaean Jove to ask how he might recover his former sanity. When he came to a certain large swamp which he couldn't cross, it is said two asses met him. He caught one of them and in this way was carried across, not touching the water at all. So when he came to the temple of Dodonaean Jove, freed at once from his madness, he acknowledged his thanks to the asses and placed them among the constellations.


Event Date: -1000 LA


§ 2.23.3  Some say he gave a human voice to the ass which had carried him. This ass later had a contest with Priapus on a matter of physique, but was defeated and killed by him. Pitying him because of this, Liber numbered him among the stars, and so that it should be known that he did this as a god, not as a timid man fleeing from Juno, he placed him above the Crab which had been added to the stars by her kindness.


Event Date: -1000 LA


§ 2.23.4  According to Eratosthenes, another story is told about the Asses. After Jupiter had declared war on the Giants, he summoned all the gods to combat them, and Father Liber, Vulcan, the Satyrs, and the Sileni came riding on asses. Since they were not far from the enemy, the asses were terrified, and individually let out a braying such as the Giants had never heard. At the noise the enemy took hastily to flight, and thus were defeated.


Event Date: -1000 LA


§ 2.23.5  There is a story similar to this about the shell of Triton. He, too, when he had hollowed out the trumpet he had invented, took it with him against the Giants, and there blew strange sounds through the shell. The Giants, fearing that some wild beast had been brought by their adversaries, took to flight, and thus were overcome and came into their enemies' power.


Event Date: -1000 LA


§ 2.24.1  LION: He is said to have been put among the stars because he is considered the king of beasts. Some writers add that Hercules' first Labor was with him and that he killed him, unarmed. Pisandrus and many others have written about this. Above his likeness in the sky nearest the Virgin are seven other stars near his tail, arranged in a triangle, which Conon, the mathematician, and Callimachus call the Lock of Berenice. When Ptolemy had married his sister Berenice, daughter of Ptolemy and Arsinoe, and after a few days had set out to attack Asia, Berenice vowed that if Ptolemy returned as victor she would clip off her hair. She placed the lock, consecrated by this vow, in the temple of Venus Arsinoe Zephyritis, but on the following day it couldn't be seen there. When the king was distressed by this, Conon the mathematician, whom we mentioned above, desiring to win the favor of the king, said that he had seen the lock among the constellations, and pointed out seven stars without definite configuration which he imagined were the lock.
§ 2.24.3  Some authors along with Callimachus have said that this Berenice raised horses, and used to send them to Olympia. Others add that once Ptolemy, Berenice's father, in panic at the number of the enemy, had sought safety in flight, but his daughter, an accomplished horse woman, leaped on a horse, organized the remaining troops, killed many of the enemy, and put the rest to flight. For this even Callimachus calls her high-souled. Eratosthenes says that she ordered returned to the girls of Lesbos the dowry left to them by their parents, which on one had released, and she established among them right to bring action of recovery.


Event Date: -1000 LA


§ 2.25.1  VIRGIN: Hesiod calls her the daughter of Jove and Themis. Aratus says that she is thought to be daughter of Astraeus and Aurora, who lived at the time of the Golden Age of men and was their leader. On account of her carefulness and fairness she was called Justice, and at that time no foreign nations were attacked in war, nor did anyone sail over the seas, but they were wont to live their lives caring for their fields. But those born after their death began to be less observant of duty and more greedy, so that Justice associated more rarely with men. Finally the disease became so extreme that it was said the Brazen Race was born; then she could not endure more, and flew away to the stars. Others call her Fortune — others, Ceres, and they dispute the more about her because her head is dimly seen. Some have called her Erigone, daughter of Icarus, whom we have spoken of before. Others call her a daughter of Apollo by Chrysothemis, an infant, named Parthenos. Because she died young she was put by Apollo among the constellations.


Event Date: -1000 LA


§ 2.26.1  SCORPION: This sign is divided into two parts on account of the great spread of the claws. One part of it our writers have called the Balance.


Event Date: -1000 LA


§ 2.26.2  But the whole of the constellation was put in the sky, it is said, for the following reason: Orion since he used to hunt, and felt confident that he was most skilled of all in that pursuit, said even to Diana and Latona that he was able to kill anything the produced. Earth, angered at this, sent the scorpion which is said to have killed him. Jove, however, admiring the courage of both, put the scorpion among the stars, as a lesson to men not to be too self-confident. Diana, then, because of her affection for Orion, asked Jove to show to her request the same favour he had given of his own accord to Earth. And so the constellation was established in such a way that when Scorpion rises, Orion sets.


Event Date: -1000 LA


§ 2.27.1  ARCHER: Many have called this sign the Centaurus; others deny the name, for the reason that no Centaurus makes use of arrows. The question is raised, too why he is formed with horse flanks but a Satyr's tail.


Event Date: -1000 LA


§ 2.27.2  Some say that he is Crotus, son of Eupheme, nurse of the Muses. As Sositheus, writer of tragedies, says, he had his home on Mount Helicon and took his pleasure in the company of the Muses, sometimes even following the pursuit of hunting. He attained great fame for his diligence, for he was very swift in the woods, and clever in the arts. As a reward for his zeal the Muses asked Jove to represent him in some star group, and Jove did so. Since he wished to display all his skills in one body, he gave him horse flanks because he rode a great deal. He added arrows, since these would show both his keenness and his swiftness, and he gave him a Satyr's tail because the Muses took no less pleasure in Crotus than Liber did in the Satyrs. Before his feet are a few stars arranged in a circle, which some said were a wreath, thrown off as by one at play.


Event Date: -1000 LA


§ 2.28.1  CAPRICORN OR SEA GOAT: This sign resembles Aegipan, whom Jupiter wished to be put among the constellations because he was nourished with him, just as he put the goat nurse we have mentioned before. He, first, as Eratosthenes says, when Jupiter attacked the Titans, is said to have cast into the enemy the fear that is called panikos. The lower part of his body has fish formation, because he hurled shellfish against the enemy, too, instead of stones.


Event Date: -1000 LA


§ 2.28.2  Egyptian priests and some poets say that once when many gods had assembled in Egypt, suddenly Typhon, an exceedingly fierce monster and deadly enemy of the gods, came to that place. Terrified by him, they changed their shapes into other forms: Mercury became an ibis, Apollo, the bird that is called Thracian, Diana, a cat. For this reason they say the Egyptians do not permit these creatures to be injured, because they are called representations of gods. At this same time, they say, Pan cast himself into the river, making the lower part of his body a fish, and the rest a goat, and thus escaped from Typhon. Jove, admiring his shrewdness, put his likeness among the constellations.


Event Date: -1000 LA


§ 2.29.1  AQUARIUS OR WATER BEARER: Aquarius or Water Bearer. Many have said he is Ganymede, whom Jupiter is said to have made cupbearer of the gods, snatching him up from his parents because of his beauty. So he is shown as if pouring water from an urn. Hegesianax, however, says he is Deucalion, because during his reign such quantities of water poured from the sky that the great Flood resulted. Eubulus, again, points out that he is Cecrops, commemorating the antiquity of the race, and showing that men used water in the sacrificed of the gods before wine was given to them, and that Cecrops ruled before wine was discovered.


Event Date: -1000 LA


§ 2.30.1  FISHES: Diognetus Erythraeus says that once Venus and her son Cupid came in Syria to the river Euphrates. There Typhon, of whom we have already spoken, suddenly appeared. Venus and her son threw themselves into the river and there changed their forms to fishes, and by so doing this escaped danger. So afterwards the Syrians, who are adjacent to these regions, stopped eating fish, fearing to catch them lest with like reason they seem either to oppose the protection of the gods, or to entrap the gods themselves.

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